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|population_ref = (, , wards ) Office for National Statistics|name=ons

History

Chiswick was first recorded circa1000 as ''Ceswican''; the name "Chiswick" is of Old English language origin meaning "Cheese Farm" and originates from the riverside meadows and farms that are thought to have supported an annual cheese fair on Dukes Meadows up until the 18th century.Room, Adrian: “Dictionary of Place-Names in the British Isles”, Bloomsbury, 1988Plea Rolls of the Court of Common Pleas; National Archives; CP 40/629; Year 1418; http://aalt.law.uh.edu/H5/CP40no629/aCP40no629fronts/IMG_0444.htm; third entry - Chesewyk is the place where John Meryman, carpenter, a defendant is from

Chiswick grew up as a village around St. Nicholas Church, Chiswick from c. 1181 on Church Street, its inhabitants practising farming, fishing and other riverside trades including a ferry, important as there were no bridges between London Bridge and Kingston throughout the Middle Ages.Clegg, 1995. p 17 The area included three other small settlements, the fishing village of Strand-on-the-Green, Little Sutton and Turnham Green on the West road out of London.

By the early nineteenth century the fishing industry in and around Chiswick was declining as the growth of industry and the invention of the flush toilet were causing pollution in the river. Fish began to die out and the river became unsuitable as a spawning ground. Locks upstream also made the river impassable by migratory fish such as salmon and shad. From the 18th century onwards the High Road became built up with inns and large houses.

In 1864, John Isaac Thornycroft, founder of the John I. Thornycroft & Company shipbuilding company, established a yard at Church Wharf at the west end of Chiswick Mall.Humphrey Arthure: "Thornycroft Shipbuilding and Motor Works in Chiswick". (24 page booklet with no date or ISBN number.)Humphrey Arthure: "Life and Work in Old Chiswick", March 1982, no ISBN number. The works closed in 1908.

In 1822, the Royal Horticultural Society leased of land in the area between the now Sutton Court Road and Duke’s Avenue.Elliot, Brent: “The Garden, June 2004” This site was used for its fruit tree collection and its first school of horticulture, and housed its first flower shows. The area was reduced to in the 1870s, and the lease was terminated when the RHS Garden, Wisley, Surrey, was set up in 1904. Some of the original pear trees still grow in the gardens of houses built on the site.



The population of Chiswick grew almost tenfold during the 19th century, reaching 29,809 in 1901, and the area is a mixture of Georgian, Victorian and Edwardian housing. Suburban building began in Gunnersbury in the 1860s and in Bedford Park, London, on the borders of Chiswick and Acton, in 1875.

During the Second World War, Chiswick suffered a number of bombing raids.''Glimpses of Chiswick’s Development'', William P. Roe, pages 80 to 90, 1999, ISBN 0-9516512-2-6 Both incendiary and high explosive bombs were used, and there was also damage from falling anti-aircraft shells that had not exploded as intended. The first V-2 rocket to hit London fell on Chiswick on 8 September 1944, killing three people, injuring 22 others and causing extensive damage to surrounding trees and buildings. Six houses were demolished by the rocket and many more suffered damage. There is a memorial where the rocket fell on Staveley Road. There is also a War Memorial at the east end of Turnham Green.

Refuge (United Kingdom charity) was founded in 1971 by Erin Pizzey as Chiswick Women's Aid. She opened in Chiswick the world’s first refuge for women and children escaping domestic violence. In 1979 the organisation became a registered charity,http://www.charity-commission.gov.uk/Showcharity/RegisterOfCharities/CharityFramework.aspx?RegisteredCharityNumber=277424&SubsidiaryNumber=0{{cite web| title = History| publisher = Refuge| url = http://refuge.org.uk/about-us/who-we-are/history/| accessdate = 5 January 2010 | archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5mXmHqhl9
| archivedate = 5 January 2010 }} changing its name to Refuge in 1993, reflecting its growing national status. |population_ref = (, , wards ) Office for National Statistics|name=ons

Governance

Chiswick forms part of the Brentford and Isleworth (UK Parliament constituency) Parliament constituency. The Member of Parliament is Mary Macleod (Conservative Party (UK)), elected at the United Kingdom general election, 2010 replacing Ann Keen (Labour Party (UK)) (United Kingdom general election, 1997-2010). For elections to the London Assembly Chiswick is in the South West (London Assembly constituency), represented since 2000 by Tony Arbour, of the Conservative Party. For elections to Hounslow London Borough Council, Chiswick is represented by three electoral wards: Turnham Green, Chiswick Homefields and Chiswick Riverside. Each ward elects three councillors, who serve four-year terms. For 2010-14, all nine councillors are Conservative Party (UK).{{cite web |accessdate=2010-05-07 |publisher=London Borough of Hounslow |title=Chiswick Homefields election result 2010
|url=http://www.hounslow.gov.uk/index/council_and_democracy/democracy_and_elections/elections2010/council_elections2010/chiswickhomefields_election_result_2010.htm}} It is one of 35 major centres identified in the statutory planning document of Greater London, the London Plan.

''Chiswick St Nicholas'' was an ancient, and later civil, parish in the Ossulstone hundred of Middlesex. In 1878 the parish gained a triangle of land in the east which had formed a detached part of Ealing. From 1894 to 1927 the parish formed the Chiswick Urban District. In 1927 it was abolished and its former area was merged with that of Brentford Urban District to form Municipal Borough of Brentford and Chiswick. The amalgamated district became a municipal borough in 1932. The borough of Brentford and Chiswick was abolished in 1965 and its former area was transferred to Greater London to form part of the London Borough of Hounslow. With these changes, Chiswick Town Hall is no longer the local government centre, but is still used for some council services. There was a Brentford and Chiswick (UK Parliament constituency) Parliament constituency from 1918 to 1974. |population_ref = (, , wards ) Office for National Statistics|name=ons

Geography

Chiswick occupies a meander of the River Thames, west of Charing Cross. The district is built up towards the north with more open space in the south, including the grounds of Chiswick House and Dukes Meadows, in both ways it resembles Fulham. Chiswick however has one main commercial area, the Chiswick High Road, forming a long high street in the north. The river forms the southern boundary with Kew, including North Sheen, Mortlake and Barnes, London in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. In the east Goldhawk Road tube station and British Grove form a border with Hammersmith in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. To the north are Bedford Park, London and South Acton, London in the London Borough of Ealing, with a boundary partially delineated by the District line. To the west, within Hounslow, are the districts of Gunnersbury and Brentford. Chiswick is included in the W postcode area of the London postal district, which in a tribute to its ancient parish includes Bedford Park, mostly within the London Borough of Ealing.Museum of London - [http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/postcodes/places/W4.html The Postcodes Project: W4 Chiswick]. Retrieved on 1 February 2008.

Bedford Park, London, designed largely by Richard Norman Shaw, was described by Nikolaus Pevsner as the first place "where the relaxed, informal mood of a market town or village was adopted for a complete speculatively built suburb". Some of the most beautiful period mansion blocks in the area, such as Heathfield Court and Arlington Mansions line the sides of Turnham Green - the site of the Battle of Turnham Green in 1642. Other suburbs of Chiswick include Grove Park (south of the A4, close to Chiswick railway station) and Strand-on-the-Green, a fishing hamlet until the late 18th century.''[http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=22563 Chiswick: Economic history]'', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 7: Acton, Chiswick, Ealing and Brentford, West Twyford, Willesden (1982), pp. 78–86. Retrieved on 1 February 2008. In 1896, "Bedford Park, Chiswick" was advertised,map in Chiswick Past, page 123 which at that time was partly in Municipal Borough of Acton.''[http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=22559 Chiswick: Growth]'', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 7: Acton, Chiswick, Ealing and Brentford, West Twyford, Willesden, (1982). Retrieved 1 February 2008. |population_ref = (, , wards ) Office for National Statistics|name=ons

Economy

Chiswick High Road contains a mix of retail, restaurants, food outlets and expanding office and hotel space. The wide streets encourage cafes, pubs and restaurants to provide pavement seating. Being situated between the offices at the Golden Mile (Brentford) A4 road (England) and Hammersmith, office developments and warehouse conversions to offices began from the 1960s. The first, in 1961 was 414 Chiswick High Road, that was built on the site of the old Empire Cinema, then in 1964 to 1966 the 18 storey headquarters for IBM were built above Gunnersbury tube station. Designed to accommodate 1500 people, it remained their headquarters until 1992, where after extensive alterations it became the home of the British Standards Institution, now known as the BSI Group in 1994.Gillian Clegg Chiswick Past 1995 ISBN 0-948667-33-8 In 2010 the property was purchased by Harbert Management Corporation and renamed Chiswick Tower. It is undergoing refurbishment and the space vacated by BSI Group is being let by Frost Meadowcroft.[http://www.agentville.net/Documents/20101124171726.pdf Agentville: Chiswick Tower]

Chiswick is also home to the Griffin Brewery, where Fuller, Smith & Turner brew their prize-winning ales. Fuller, Smith & Turner P.L.C. and its predecessor companies have been brewing beer on its Fuller's Brewery for over 350 years.Fuller Smith & Turner - [http://www.fullers.co.uk/rte.asp?id=34 History]. Retrieved on 1 February 2008. The original brewery was in the gardens of Bedford House in Chiswick Mall, and these premises later expanded to the present site nearby. The company brews cask ale and operates an extensive range of pubs throughout London and the South East. |population_ref = (, , wards ) Office for National Statistics|name=ons

Points of interest

Chiswick House
[[Image:Chiswick House.jpg|thumb|Chiswick House]]

Chiswick House was designed by the Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, and built for him, in 1726-29 as an extension to an earlier Jacobean architecture house (subsequently demolished in 1788); it is considered to be among the finest surviving examples of Palladian architecture in Britain, with superb collections of paintings and furniture. Its surrounding grounds constitute one of the most important historical gardens in England and Wales, and mark a significant step on the road to the picturesque aesthetic in garden design.

Churches
[[File:Turnham Green Church 3.jpg|thumb|upright|Christ Church, Turnham Green, near Chiswick High Road]]

St. Nicholas Church, Chiswick, near the river Thames, has a 15th-century tower, although the remainder of the church was rebuilt by J.L. Pearson in 1882-84. Monuments in the churchyard mark the burial sites of the 18th-century English artist William Hogarth—whose house is now a museum known as Hogarth's House—and William Kent, the architect and landscape designer; the churchyard also houses a mausoleum (for Philip James de Loutherbourg) designed by John Soane. One of Oliver Cromwell's daughters, Mary Fauconberg, lived at Sutton Court and is buried in the churchyard.Clegg, 1995. p 30 Enduring legend has it that the body of Oliver Cromwell was also interred with her, though as the Viscount Fauconberg did not move to Sutton Court until 15 years after his disinterment, it is more likely he was reburied at their home at Newburgh Priory. On a later note, Private Frederick Hitch VC, hero of Rorke's Drift, is also buried there. St. Michael's Church on Elmwood Road, of 1908-09, was designed by W.D. Caroe. The Russian Orthodox Cathedral was built on Harvard Road in 1998, with a blue and gold dome.

Theatres

Chiswick had two well-known theatres in the 20th century.Clegg, Gillian: “Chiswick Past”, Historical Publications Ltd, 1995 The Chiswick Empire (1912 to 1959) was at 414 Chiswick High Road. It had 2,140 seats,Looby, Patrick: Britain in Old Photographs, Chiswick & Brentford. Sutton Publishing Ltd, 1997. ISBN 0-7509-1151-4 and staged music hall entertainment, plays, reviews, opera, ballet and an annual Christmas pantomime. The Q Theatre (1924 to 1959) was a small theatre opposite Kew Bridge station. It staged the first works of Terence Rattigan and William Douglas-Home and many of its plays went on to the West End. The Tabard Theatre (1985) on Bath Road, is known for new writing and experimental work.Tabard Theatre - [http://www.tabardweb.co.uk/history.htm History]. Retrieved on 20 August 2010.

Other buildings
, briefly the home of the poet Alexander Pope]]

The Arthur Sanderson & Sons Factory (1902) in Barley Mow Passage, now known as Voysey House, was designed by the architect C.F. Voysey. It was originally a wallpaper printing works, but it is now used as office space. It is a Grade II* listed building.

There are several historic pubs in Chiswick, some of them listed buildings, including the Mawson Arms, the George and Devonshire and the Old Packhorse. Three are in Strand-on-the-Green, fronting on to the river path. The Tabard on Bath Road near Turnham Green station is known for its William Morris interior. A large part of Chiswick falls within the conservation areas of the London Borough of Hounslow.Hounslow London Borough Council - [http://www.hounslow.gov.uk/conservation.pdf Conservation Areas]. Retrieved on 1 February 2008.

Dukes Meadows
Dukes Meadows stands on land formerly owned by the Duke of Devonshire. In the 1920s, it was purchased by the local council, who developed it as a recreational centre. A promenade and bandstand were built, and the meadows are still used for sport with a rugby club, football pitches, hockey club, several rowing clubs and a golf club. In recent years a local conservation charity, the Dukes Meadows TrustDukes Meadows Trust - [http://www.dukesmeadowstrust.org/aboutus.html About Us]. Retrieved on 1 February 2008. has undertaken extensive restoration work, which saw a long term project of a children's water play area opened in August 2006. |population_ref = (, , wards ) Office for National Statistics|name=ons

Transport

Chiswick is situated at the start of the A406 road (A406), A205 road (A205) and the M4 motorway, the latter providing a direct connection to London Heathrow Airport and the M25 motorway. The A4 road (Great Britain) (A4) runs eastwards into central London via the Hogarth Roundabout where it meets the A316 road (A316) which runs south-west, eventually joining the M3 motorway (Great Britain).

The southern border of Chiswick runs along the River Thames, which is crossed in this area by Barnes Railway Bridge, Chiswick Bridge, Kew Railway Bridge and Kew Bridge. River services between Westminster Pier and Hampton Court depart from Kew Gardens Pier just across Kew Bridge.

Including buses that stop at Kew Bridge and Chiswick High Road, and/or Kew Bridge railway station, Chiswick is served by eleven bus routes (London Buses route 27, London Buses route 65, London Buses route 94, London Buses route 190, London Buses route 237, London Buses route 267, London Buses route 272, London Buses route 391, London Buses route 440, London Buses route E3 and London Buses route H91) and two all-night services (London Buses route N9 and London Buses route N11). Three services run 24 hours a day (London Buses route 27, London Buses route 94, London Buses route 65).

Until its closure in 1989, Transport for London had a Central Works and Training School (for bus crews) in Chiswick High Road, opposite Gunnersbury Underground Station. The Training School incorporated a bus "Skid-Pan".

The District line crosses Chiswick, the List of London Underground stations are (east-west): Stamford Brook tube station, Turnham Green tube station, Chiswick Park tube station and Gunnersbury tube station. Turnham Green is an interchange with the Piccadilly line, but only before 0650 and after 2230, when Piccadilly line trains stop at the station.

The nearest National Rail stations are Chiswick railway station and Kew Bridge railway station. South West Trains operates a regular service to London Waterloo via Clapham Junction.

The North London line crosses Chiswick (north-south); the nearest London Overground is ''Gunnersbury railway station''. |population_ref = (, , wards ) Office for National Statistics|name=ons

Sports

finishing post by Chiswick Bridge]]

Chiswick has a number of local rugby union teams including, Chiswick RFC, formerly Old Meadonians RFC. They currently play in London 2 North West (Level seven), six leagues below the Guinness Premiership. It plays on a Saturday at Dukes Meadows.

On Chiswick Common is the Rocks Lane Multi Sports Centre, where there are tennis, five-a-side football and netball courts available to hire to the public.

The Chiswick reach of the Thames is heavily used for competitive and recreational Rowing (sport), and Chiswick itself is home to several clubs. The University of London Boat Club is based in its boathouse off Hartington Road (the boathouse also houses the clubs of many of the University's constituent colleges and teaching hospitals). ULBC is, periodically, one of the most successful university clubs in the UK, with multiple wins at Henley Royal Regatta. Recent members include Tim Foster, Gold medallist at the Sydney Olympics and Frances Houghton, World Champion in 2005, 2006 and 2007. Mortlake Anglian & Alpha Rowing Club and Quintin Boat Club are situated between Chiswick Quay Marina and Chiswick Bridge. The foreshore facing these clubs is also used as the landing place for Boat Race crews.

Tideway Scullers School is immediately downriver of Chiswick Bridge. The Club's current members include single sculling World Champion Mahé Drysdale and Great Britain single sculler Alan Campbell (sculler). The upriver end of the The Championship Course from Mortlake to Putney is adjacent to the Tideway Scullers School boathouse. The Boat Race is contested on the Championship Course on a flood tide (in other words from Putney to Mortlake) with Duke's Meadows a popular view-point for the closing stages of the race. The finishing post is just downstream of Chiswick Bridge. Other important races such as the Head of the River Race race the reverse course, on an ebb tide.

Although the garage closed in 2000 and has now become a block of flats, Chiswick was once home to the ''Chequered Flag'' garage and its associated motor racing team. Situated on Chiswick High Road, the garage and car showroom was noted for its privateering Rallying driving a Lancia Stratos HF with drivers such as Tony Pond and Russell Brookes.[http://www.stratossupersite.com/FlagStratos.htm Stratos] Much earlier, the team had raced Formula Junior cars, and numbered Jim Clark amongst its early drivers. |population_ref = (, , wards ) Office for National Statistics|name=ons

Notable people

[[File:Bath Road, London by Camille Pissarro.jpg|thumb|Impressionist painting of Bath Road, London by Camille Pissarro, 1897. Oil on canvas.]]

Eighteenth century
One of the first notable people to have lived in Chiswick is the artist William Hogarth, who lived in Chiswick from 1749, when he bought the house now known as Hogarth's House, which gives its name to the nearby road junction – the Hogarth Roundabout. Hogarth lived in the house until his death in 1764. He is buried in St. Nicholas's churchyard.

Also in the 18th century, between 1716 and 1719, the poet Alexander Pope, author of ''The Rape of the Lock'', lived in Chiswick - in the building which is now the Mawson Arms at the corner of Mawson Lane. Another 18th century resident is actor Charles Holland (actor) who was born in Chiswick in 1733.

Nineteenth century
[[File:Ugo Foscolo.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Portrait of the poet Ugo Foscolo by François-Xavier-Pascal Fabre, 1813. Foscolo died in exile at Turnham Green.]]
In the 19th century, the Italian writer, revolutionary and poet Ugo Foscolo, died in exile at Turnham Green in 1827, and was buried at St Nicholas Churchyard, Chiswick. The engineer John Edward Thornycroft was born in Chiswick in 1872; his father, John Isaac Thornycroft, had founded the Chiswick based John I. Thornycroft & Company shipbuilding company in 1864, which Thornycroft later joined and developed.Humphrey Arthure: "Thornycroft Shipbuilding and Motor Works in Chiswick". The artist Montague Dawson, regarded as one of the best 20th century painters of the sea, was born in Chiswick in 1895.

The Pissarro family of painters, the impressionist Camille Pissarro, his eldest son Lucien Pissarro, as well as Felix and Ludovic-Rodo lived in 62 Bath Road, Chiswick around 1897; with Camille Pissarro painting a series of notable landscapes of the area.

Twentieth century

[[File:Arlington Park Mansions - Entrance.jpg|thumb|Entrance to Arlington Park Mansions, with E. M. Forster blue plaque]]
In the twentieth century, the novelist E. M. Forster (1879–1970) lived at 9 Arlington Park Mansions in Chiswick from 1939 until at least 1961.
Rock musicians John Entwistle and Pete Townshend of the Who were both born in Chiswick during the Second World War.

Among those born in Chiswick are the actress Dame Helen Mirren (1945- ); the singer Kim Wilde (1960- ); the illustrator Clifford Harper (1949- ); the actor Hugh Grant (1960- ), who grew up in Chiswick, living next to Arlington Park Mansions on Sutton Lane; the zoologist and broadcaster Aubrey Manning (1930- ); the photographer Derek Ridgers (1952- ); comedian Mel Smith (1952-2013); athlete and politician Sebastian Coe (1956- ); marine geologist Frederick Vine (1939- ).

Among those who have lived in Chiswick are the singer Bruce Dickinson (1958- ) of the band Iron Maiden;, TV presenter Kate Humble (1968- ) from 1997 to 2010; actress Elizabeth McGovern (1961- ) and her husband the film director Simon Curtis (filmmaker) (1960- ). |population_ref = (, , wards ) Office for National Statistics|name=ons

Demography and housing

{| class="sortable wikitable" border="1"
|+ '''2011 Census Homes'''
|-
!Ward !!Detached !!Semi-detached!!Terraced!!Flats and apartments!!Caravans etc!!Shared
|-
|Chiswick Homefields||149||916||1218||2493||12||69
|-
|Chiswick Riverside||243||947||1136||2753||3||25
|-
|Turnham Green||650||1221||3333||1||77
|}

{| class="sortable wikitable" border="1"
|+ '''2011 Census Households'''
!Ward !!Population !!Households !!% Owned outright !!% Owned w. loan!!hectares
|-
|Chiswick Homefields||11346||4857||25.8||28.1||203
|-
|Chiswick Riverside ||11543||5107||24.8||31 ||192
|-
|Turnham Green ||11448||5443||25.9||23.5||177
|-
|} |population_ref = (, , wards ) Office for National Statistics|name=ons

See also

*List of schools in Hounslow |population_ref = (, , wards ) Office for National Statistics|name=ons

References

|population_ref = (, , wards ) Office for National Statistics|name=ons

Sources

*
* |population_ref = (, , wards ) Office for National Statistics|name=ons

External links

Category:Areas of London
Category:Districts of Hounslow
Category:Articles including recorded pronunciations (UK English)
Category:M4 corridor
Category:Districts of London on the River Thames
Category:Major centres of London