Richmond, London

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|population_ref = (, wards ) |area_total_km2=5.38 |civil_parish = |post_town = RICHMOND |postcode_area = TW |postcode_district = TW9TW10 |dial_code = 020 |os_grid_reference = TQ1874 |charingX_distance_mi= 8.2 |charingX_direction= ENE |static_image_name= Richmond Riverside, London - Sept 2008.jpg |static_image_caption= Richmond Riverside |population= +

History

Royal residence
[[File:A View of Richmond Palace published in 1765.jpg|thumb|left|Richmond Palace – the town's origin]]
The area now known as Richmond was formerly part of Shene. '''Shene''' was not listed in Domesday Book, although it is depicted on the associated maps as ''Sceon'', its Saxon spelling.[http://www.gwp.enta.net/surrnames.htm Surrey Domesday Book] Henry I of England lived briefly in the King's house in "Sheanes". In 1299 Edward I of England "Hammer of the Scots", took his whole court to the manor house at Sheen, a little east of the bridge and on the riverside, and it thus became a royal residence; William Wallace was executed in London in 1305, and it was in Sheen that the Commissioner#Scotland from Scotland went down on their knees before Edward.

Edward II of England, following his defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, founded a monastery for Carmelites at Sheen. When the boy-king Edward III of England came to the throne in 1327 he gave the manor to his mother Isabella of France. Edward later spent over two thousand pounds on improvements, but in the middle of the work Edward himself died at the manor, in 1377. Richard II of England was the first English king to make Sheen his main residence, which he did in 1383. Twelve years later Richard was so distraught at the death of his wife Anne of Bohemia at the age of 28, that he, according to Holinshed, "caused it [the manor] to be thrown down and defaced; whereas the former kings of this land, being wearie of the citie, used customarily thither to resort as to a place of pleasure, and serving highly to their recreation". It was rebuilt between 1414 and 1422, but destroyed by fire 1497.

Following that fire Henry VII of England had a palace built there and in 1501 he named it Richmond Palace in recognition of his Earl of Richmond and his ancestral home at Richmond Castle in Yorkshire. The town that developed nearby took the same name as the palace, and there are unconfirmed beliefs that Shakespeare may have performed some plays there. Once Elizabeth I of England became queen she spent much of her time at Richmond, as she enjoyed hunting deer in the "Newe Parke of Richmonde". She died there on 24 March 1603. The image shown above right is dated 1765 and is based on earlier drawings. The palace was no longer in residential use after 1649, but in 1688 James II of England ordered partial reconstruction of the palace: this time as a royal nursery. The bulk of the palace had decayed by 1779; but surviving structures include the Wardrobe, Trumpeter's House (built around 1700), and the Gate House, built in 1501. This has five bedrooms and was made available on a 65-year lease by the Crown Estate Commissioners in 1986.

18th and 19th century development
Beyond the grounds of the old palace, Richmond remained mostly agricultural land until the 18th century. White Lodge, in the middle of what is now Richmond Park was built as a hunting lodge for George II of Great Britain and during this period the number of large houses in their own grounds increased significantly, such as Asgill House and Pembroke Lodge, Richmond Park. These were followed by the building of further important houses including Downe House, Richmond Hill, The Wick House and The Wick on the hill, as this area became an increasingly fashionable place to live. Richmond Bridge, London was completed during this period in 1777 as a replacement for a ferry crossing which connected Richmond town centre on the east bank with its neighbouring district of Twickenham. Today, this, together with the well-preserved Georgian Architecture terraces that surround Richmond Green and line Richmond Hill, London to its crest, now has listed building status.[http://www.richmond.gov.uk/sept_listed_buildings_register_as_of_15.09.10.pdf Listed buildings in the London Borough of Richmond Upon Thames] ''London Borough of Richmond upon Thames''. Retrieved 21 August 2011.

As Richmond continued to prosper and expand during the 19th century, much luxurious housing was built on the streets that line Richmond Hill, as well as shops in the town centre to serve the increasing population. |population_ref = (, wards ) |area_total_km2=5.38 |civil_parish = |post_town = RICHMOND |postcode_area = TW |postcode_district = TW9TW10 |dial_code = 020 |os_grid_reference = TQ1874 |charingX_distance_mi= 8.2 |charingX_direction= ENE |static_image_name= Richmond Riverside, London - Sept 2008.jpg |static_image_caption= Richmond Riverside |population= +

Governance

Richmond forms part of the Richmond Park (UK Parliament constituency) UK Parliament constituency. The current Member of Parliament is Zac Goldsmith. Richmond is also part of the South West (London Assembly constituency). For elections to the European Parliament it is part of the London (European Parliament constituency) constituency.

Richmond, earlier known as ''Shene'', was part of the large ancient parish of Kingston upon Thames in the Kingston (hundred) of Surrey. Split off from Kingston upon Thames from an early time, the parish of Richmond St Mary Magdalene formed the Municipal Borough of Richmond (Surrey) from 1890. The municipal borough was expanded in 1892 by the addition of Kew, Mortlake and Petersham, London and in 1933 Ham, London was added to the borough. In 1965 the parish and municipal borough were abolished by the London Government Act 1963 and the area transferred to Greater London, to form part of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. This current borough extends from and includes Barnes, London in the north-east to Hampton Court in the south-west, embracing Richmond, Twickenham and Teddington. |population_ref = (, wards ) |area_total_km2=5.38 |civil_parish = |post_town = RICHMOND |postcode_area = TW |postcode_district = TW9TW10 |dial_code = 020 |os_grid_reference = TQ1874 |charingX_distance_mi= 8.2 |charingX_direction= ENE |static_image_name= Richmond Riverside, London - Sept 2008.jpg |static_image_caption= Richmond Riverside |population= +

Geography

Richmond sits technically on the south side of the River Thames opposite East Twickenham, but owing to the way this stretch of the river's meanders, the town is immediately north and north-east of its nearest stretch of river, which curves around the town and then Kew in its course starting from Petersham, London to revert to a more definitively west-east axis. The river is still tidal at Richmond, so to allow major passenger and goods traffic to continue to operate during low tide, a half-tide Lock (water transport) was opened in 1894 and is used when the adjacent weir is in position. This weir ensures that there is always a minimum depth of water of 5'8" (1.72 m) toward the middle of the river between Richmond and Teddington whatever the state of the tide. Above the lock and weir there is a small Richmond Lock and Footbridge.

Richmond is well endowed with green and open spaces accessible to the public. At the heart of the town sits Richmond Green, which is roughly square in shape and together with the Little Green, a small supplementary green stretching from its southeast corner, is 12 acres (0.05 km²) in size. The Green is surrounded by well-used metalled roads that provide for a fair amount of vehicle parking for both residents and visitors. The south corner leads into the main shopping area of the town; at the west corner is the old gate house which leads through to other remaining buildings of the palace; at the north corner is pedestrian access to Old Deer Park (plus vehicle access for municipal use). The park is a Crown Estate landscape extending from the town along the riverside as far as the boundary with the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew at Kew, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This contains wide green lawns and sports facilities, and the Grade I listed former Kew Observatory erected for George III in 1769.

South of the town centre, rising from Richmond Bridge to an elevation of 165 ft (50m), is Richmond Hill. To its south rises Richmond Park, an area of 2,360 acres (9.55 km2; 3.7 sq mi) of wild heath and woodland originally enclosed by Charles I of England for hunting, and now forming London's largest Royal Parks of London. This park is both a National Nature Reserve and a Site of Special Scientific Interest. It is about three times the size of Central Park in New York City and it has around 630 red deer and fallow deer.{{cite web|url=
http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/richmond_park/flora_fauna/deer.cfm |title= Deer|publisher= The Royal Parks|accessdate = 5 October 2013}} The park has a number of traffic and pedestrian gates leading to the surrounding areas of East Sheen, Roehampton, Putney, Kingston, London and Ham, London.

Richmond's main arterial road, the A316 road, running between Chiswick and the M3 motorway (Great Britain) motorway, bisects Old Deer Park and the town to its north. The town centre on the A307 road which used to be the main link between London and northwest Surrey, before which it had one of the main routes of the Portsmouth Road before it was diverted into almost a straight line. The town's A316 road (Great Britain) is approximately the divide between Richmond and Kew and was built in the 1930s, entailing the construction of Twickenham Bridge. This expands into three lanes and motorway status three and five miles west respectively.

Nearest places


*Barnes, London
*East Sheen
*Ham, London
*Hampton, London

*Isleworth
*Kew
*Kingston upon Thames
*Mortlake

*Petersham, London
*Roehampton
*St Margarets, London
*Strawberry Hill, London

*Teddington
*Twickenham
*Whitton, London
*Wimbledon, London |population_ref = (, wards ) |area_total_km2=5.38 |civil_parish = |post_town = RICHMOND |postcode_area = TW |postcode_district = TW9TW10 |dial_code = 020 |os_grid_reference = TQ1874 |charingX_distance_mi= 8.2 |charingX_direction= ENE |static_image_name= Richmond Riverside, London - Sept 2008.jpg |static_image_caption= Richmond Riverside |population= +

Economy

Richmond upon Thames, of which Richmond North and South make up two of its Wards of the United Kingdom, has the least poverty in London.[http://www.dwp.gov.uk/docs/cpa-r-u-t.xls Department for Works and Pensions] 2001 Census statistics. Retrieved 25 September 2011. The town has the largest commercial centre in the borough and is classified a Major centres of London#Activity centres according to the London Plan. It is an established up-market shopping destination[http://www.richmond.gov.uk/home/business/invest/invest_locating_your_business/invest_richmond.htm] Business Investment Opportunities, ''London Borough of Richmond upon Thames''. Retrieved 25 September 2011 with over 200 shops.[http://www.richmond.gov.uk/cenacmnorth_southrichmond.pdf 2001 Census data] ''London Borough of Richmond upon Thames''. Retrieved 25 September 2011 Its compact centre has approximately 50,000m2 of retail floor-space that is largely focused on George Street, the Quadrant and Hill Street. It comprises almost exclusively high street chains, the largest of which are House of Fraser, Marks & Spencer, Boots UK, Tesco and Waitrose. A Whole Foods Market with 20,000 ft2 of floor space within a new development opened in October 2013. The remaining town centre stores are largely single units.

Mostly independent businesses line the narrow alleyways running off George Street towards Richmond Green and up Richmond Hill and there is a farmers' market in Heron Square on Saturdays. Richmond has one large stand-alone supermarket, Sainsbury's, with parking for 420 cars to the east of the town.

A range of convenience shopping, restaurants and cafes can be found on the crest of Richmond Hill lining Friars Stile Road, as well as along Kew Road towards the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and on Sheen Road, which comprise the third tier of the shopping hierarchy.[http://www.richmond.gov.uk/boroughprofile-2.doc Richmond Borough profile]. ''London Borough of Richmond upon Thames''. Retrieved 25 September 2011

Retail vacancy rate, at 4.6% in 2004, is very low, well below the national average of approximately 12%. Zone A rents (prime retail floorspace) have been rising steadily since 1993 and were £180 ft2 in 2004.[http://www.richmond.gov.uk/boroughprofile-2.doc Richmond Borough Profile.] ''London Borough of Richmond upon Thames''. Retrieved 25 September 2011 In 2011, Richmond headed the list as the most recession-proof retail centre nationwide.[http://www.caci.co.uk/370.aspx CACI Retail Footprint] 2011 annual ranking, June 2011.

Richmond also offers a wide variety of office accommodation and is the UK/European headquarters of several multi-national companies including PepsiCo, eBay and Securitas AB, as well as head office to a number of national, regional and local businesses. |population_ref = (, wards ) |area_total_km2=5.38 |civil_parish = |post_town = RICHMOND |postcode_area = TW |postcode_district = TW9TW10 |dial_code = 020 |os_grid_reference = TQ1874 |charingX_distance_mi= 8.2 |charingX_direction= ENE |static_image_name= Richmond Riverside, London - Sept 2008.jpg |static_image_caption= Richmond Riverside |population= +

Places of interest

Richmond Riverside
[[File:Thames River - Richmond, Surrey, UK.jpg|thumb|Asgill House and Richmond Railway Bridge viewed from a houseboat]]
The Thames is a major contributor to the interest that Richmond inspires in many people. It has an extensive frontage around Richmond Bridge, containing many bars and restaurants. The area owes much of its Georgian style to the architect Quinlan Terry who was commissioned to restore the area (1984–1987). Within the river itself at this point are the leafy Corporation Island and the two small Flowerpot Islands. The Thames-side walkway provides access to residences, pubs and terraces, and various village green, lanes and footpaths through Richmond. The stretch of the Thames below Richmond Hill is known as Horse Reach, and includes Glover's Island. There are towpaths and tracks along both sides of the river, and they are much used by pedestrians, joggers and cyclists. Richmond is now serviced by the London River Services with boats sailing daily between Westminster Millennium Pier and Hampton Court Palace.



Richmond Green


Richmond Green, which has been described as "one of the most beautiful urban greens surviving anywhere in England", is essentially square in shape and its open grassland, framed with broadleaf trees, extends to roughly twelve acres. On summer weekends and public holidays the Green attracts many residents and visitors. It has a long history of hosting sporting events; from the 16th century onwards tournaments and archery contests have taken place on the green, while cricket matches have occurred since the mid 18th century,[http://www.richmond.gov.uk/local_history_richmond_green_properties.pdf Local History Notes: Richmond Green] Richmond Libraries’ Local Studies Collection, London Borough of Richmond upon Thames continuing to the present day. Until recently, the first recorded inter-county cricket match was believed to have been played on Richmond Green in 1730 between Surrey and Middlesex. It is now known, however, that an earlier match between Kent and Surrey took place in Dartford in 1709.Cricket Archive


To the west of the Green is Old Palace Lane running gently down to the river. Adjoining to the left is the renowned terrace of well preserved three-storey houses known as Maids of Honour Row. These were built in 1724 for the Maid of honour (trusted royal wardrobe servants) of Caroline of Ansbach, the queen consort of George II of Great Britain. As a child, Richard Francis Burton, the Victorian era explorer, lived at number 2.[http://www.richmond.gov.uk/home/leisure_and_culture/local_history_and_heritage/local_studies_collection/local_history_notes/sir_richard_and_lady_isabel_burton.htm History of Sir Richard and Lady Isabel Burton] ''London Borough of Richmond upon Thames''. Retrieved 22 August 2011.

Today the northern, western and southern sides of the Green are residential while the eastern side, linking with George Street, is largely retail and commercial. Public buildings line the eastern side of the Little Green and pubs and cafés cluster in the corner by Paved and Golden Courts – two of a number of alleys that lead from the green to the main commercial thoroughfare of George Street. These alleys are lined with mostly privately owned boutiques.

Richmond Hill


[[File:Richmond Hill - Surrey, UK.jpg|thumb|Riverside view from Twickenham bank]]
]]
Partway up Richmond Hill is Poppy Factory, staffed mainly by disabled ex-servicemen and women, which produces the Remembrance poppy sold each November for Remembrance Day.

The view from the top westward to Windsor, Berkshire has long been famous, inspiring paintings by masters such as J.M.W. Turner and Sir Joshua Reynolds[http://www.richmond.gov.uk/local_history_richmond_hill.pdf Richmond Hill History] Richmond Libraries’ Local Studies Collection and also poetry. One particularly grand description of the view can be found in Sir Walter Scott’s novel ''The Heart of Midlothian'' (1818). It is a common misconception that the folk song "Lass of Richmond Hill" relates to this hill, but the song is actually based upon a lass residing in Hill House at Richmond, North Yorkshire in the Yorkshire Dales.[http://www.ianson-international.org.uk/england/lass.htm The Lass of Richmond Hill]

Apart from the great rugby Twickenham stadium at Twickenham and the aircraft landing and taking off from London Heathrow Airport, the scene has changed little in two hundred years. The view from Richmond Hill now forms part of the Thames Landscape Strategy which aims to protect and enhance this section of the river corridor into London.

A broad, gravelled walk runs along the crest of the hill and is set back off the road, lined with benches, allowing pedestrians an uninterrupted view across the Thames valley with visitors' information boards describing points of interest. Sloping down to the River Thames is the Terrace garden that were laid out in the 1880s and were extended to the river some forty years later.

A commanding feature on the hill is the former The Royal Star and Garter Home, Richmond. During World War I an old hotel on this site, the ''Star and Garter Hotel, Richmond'', which had been a popular place of entertainment in the 18th and 19th centuries but had closed in 1906, was taken over and used as a military hospital. After the war it was replaced by a new building providing accommodation and nursing facilities for 180 seriously injured servicemen. This was sold in 2013 after the charitable trust running the home concluded that the building no longer met modern requirements and could not be easily or economically upgraded. The trust has opened a new home in Solihull, West Midlands; and the remaining residents moved in the summer of 2013 to a new purpose-built building in Surbiton.

Richmond Park


At the top of Richmond Hill, London, opposite the former Royal Star and Garter Home, sits the Richmond Gate entrance to Richmond Park. The park is a National Nature Reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest, and a Special Area of Conservation. It is the largest of London's Royal Parks and was created by Charles I in 1634 as a deer park and now has over 600 red and fallow deer. Richmond Gate remains open to traffic between dawn and dusk.

King Henry's Mound is the highest point within the park and is named after Henry VIII. From the mound there is a protected view of St Paul's Cathedral in the City of London over 10 miles (16 km) to the east which was established in 1710. According to legend, Henry VIII stood on the mound to watch for the sign from St Paul's that Anne Boleyn had been executed at the Tower of London, and that he was then free to marry Jane Seymour.

Near King Henry's Mound is Pembroke Lodge. In 1847 this house became the home of the then Prime Minister, Lord John Russell, who conducted much government business there and entertained Queen Victoria, foreign royalty, aristocrats, writers (Dickens, Thackeray, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Tennyson) and other notables of the time, including Garibaldi. It was later the childhood home of Lord John Russell's grandson, the philosopher, mathematician and social critic Bertrand Russell. It is now a popular restaurant with views across the Thames Valley. Pembroke Lodge is Grade II listed.

Also in the park and Grade II listed is Thatched House Lodge, a royal residence. Since 1963 it has been the home of Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, a cousin of Queen Elizabeth II. It was the home of U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower during the Second World War.

Museums and galleries


The '''Museum of Richmond''', in Richmond's Old Town Hall, close to Richmond Bridge, has displays relating to the history of Richmond, Ham, Petersham and Kew. Its rotating exhibitions, education activities and a programme of events cover the whole of the modern borough. The museum's highlights include 16th-century glass from Richmond Palace and a painting, "The Terrace and View from Richmond Hill, Surrey" by Netherlands draughtsman and painter Leonard Knyff (1650–1722), which is part of the Richmond upon Thames Borough Art Collection. Admission to the museum is free.

The [http://www.richmond.gov.uk/home/leisure_and_culture/arts/riverside_gallery.htm/ '''Riverside Gallery'''], also at the Old Town Hall, has a year round programme of exhibitions by local artists including paintings, prints and photographs. Admission is free.

'''White Lodge, Richmond Park''' is in the The Royal Ballet Lower School in Richmond Park. As part of its redevelopment programme, the school moved and enlarged its ballet museum, which now also contains a gallery and collections relating to the history of White Lodge. These artefacts can now be accessed by the public for the first time but advance booking is required.[http://www.royal-ballet-school.org.uk/wl_museum.php?s=1 Royal Ballet website] Webpage relating to the museum

Theatres and cinemas

Richmond has two theatres. The Richmond Theatre at the side of Little Green is a Victorian architecture structure designed by Frank Matcham and restored and extended by Carl Toms in 1990. The theatre has a weekly schedule of plays and musicals, usually given by professional touring companies, and pre-West End theatre shows can sometimes be seen. There is a Christmas and New Year pantomime tradition and many of Britain's greatest music hall and pantomime performers have appeared here.

Close to Richmond station (London) is the Orange Tree Theatre which was founded in 1971 in a room above the Orange Tree pub. As audience numbers increased there was pressure to find a more accommodating space and in 1991, the company moved to current premises within a converted primary school. The 172 seat theatre was built specifically as a theatre in the round. Exclusively presenting its own productions, it has acquired a national reputation for the quality of its work for staging new plays, and for discovering undeservedly forgotten old plays and neglected classics.[http://www.orangetreetheatre.co.uk/history/ Orange Tree Theatre history]

]]
The town has three cinemas, ''the arthouse'' [http://www.curzoncinemas.com/whats_on/all_times/curzon_richmond Curzon] in Water Lane and two [http://www.odeon.co.uk/fanatic/film_times/s121/ Odeon] cinemas with a total of seven screens, the foyer of one having the accolade of being the only ''high street'' building visible from Richmond Bridge, and the second set on a nearby backstreet.

Pubs and bars
Richmond is home to numerous public houses and bars scattered throughout the town centre, along the river and up the hill, with enough variety to cater to most tastes. One of the oldest is ''The Cricketers'', serving beer since 1770, though the original building was burned down in 1844. It was soon replaced by the present Grade II listed building shown here. Samuel Whitbread (1720–1796), founder of Whitbread Brewery, part-owned it with the Collins family who had a brewery in Water Lane, close to the old palace.[http://www.richmond.gov.uk/home/leisure_and_culture/local_history_and_heritage/local_studies_collection/local_history_notes/richmond_green_properties/richmond_green_brewers_lane_to_paved_court.htm Brewers Lane to Paved Court] ''London Borough of Richmond upon Thames''. Retrieved 22 March 2010. Other Grade II listed pubs include the White Cross (Richmond), the Old Ship (Richmond) and the Britannia (Richmond).

Restaurants and cafes
Many of the major restaurant chains can be found within 500m of Richmond Bridge. There are also plenty of privately owned restaurants with culinary offerings from around the world, including India, France, Germany, Japanese, South Korea, Russian and Spain.

The ''Bingham Hotel''[http://www.thebingham.co.uk/ The Bingham Hotel] was awarded its first Michelin Guide in 2010.[http://designrestaurants.wordpress.com/2010/02/11/the-full-list-of-2010-michelin-star-restaurants-in-the-uk/ List of 2010 Michelin star restaurants in the UK] Retrieved 22 August 2011. The hotel, which overlooks the Thames, was originally two houses and dates back to the mid-18th century. |population_ref = (, wards ) |area_total_km2=5.38 |civil_parish = |post_town = RICHMOND |postcode_area = TW |postcode_district = TW9TW10 |dial_code = 020 |os_grid_reference = TQ1874 |charingX_distance_mi= 8.2 |charingX_direction= ENE |static_image_name= Richmond Riverside, London - Sept 2008.jpg |static_image_caption= Richmond Riverside |population= +

Societies

{{Infobox Organization
|name = The Richmond Local History Society
|image = Richmond_Local_History_Society_logo.jpg
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|abbreviation = RLHS
|motto =
|formation = 1985
|extinction =
|type =
|status = registered charity (number 292907)
|purpose =
|headquarters =
|location =
|region_served= Richmond, Kew, Petersham, London and Ham, London
|membership = 350+
|language =
|leader_title = Chairman
|leader_name = Christopher May
|main_organ = ''The Richmond Local History Society Newsletter''
|parent_organization =
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|num_staff = none
|num_volunteers =
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