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|population_ref = (Tottenham Regeneration Partnership area,http://www.haringey.gov.uk/summary_of_tottenham_profiles.pdf Census) |area_total_sq_mi =

History

Toponymy
Tottenham is believed to have been named after Tota, a farmer, whose hamlet was mentioned in the Domesday Book; hence Tota's hamlet became Tottenham. It was recorded in the Domesday Book as ''Toteham''.

Early history

There has been a settlement at Tottenham for over a thousand years. It grew up along the old Roman road, Ermine Street (some of which is part of the present A10 road (Great Britain)), and between Tottenham High Cross and Tottenham Hale, the present Monument Way.

When the Domesday Book was compiled in 1086, about 70 families lived within the area of the manor, mostly labourers working for the Lord of the Manor. A humorous poem entitled the Tournament of Tottenham, written around 1400, describes a mock-battle between peasants vying for the Reeve (England)'s daughter.

In 1894, Tottenham was made an Urban district (Great Britain and Ireland) and on 27 September 1934 it became a municipal borough. As from 1 April 1965, the Municipal Borough of Tottenham formed part of the London Borough of Haringey.

The River Lea (or ''Lee'') was the eastern boundary between the Municipal Boroughs of Tottenham and Walthamstow. It is the ancient boundary between Middlesex and Essex and also formed the western boundary of the Viking controlled Danelaw. Today it is the boundary between the London Boroughs of Haringey and Waltham Forest. A major tributary of the River Lea, the River Moselle (London), also crosses the borough from west to east, and often caused serious flooding until it was mostly covered in the 19th century.

From the Tudor period onwards, Tottenham became a popular recreation and leisure destination for wealthy Londoners. Henry VIII of England is known to have visited Bruce Castle and also hunted in Tottenham Wood. A rural Tottenham also featured in Izaak Walton's book ''The Compleat Angler'', published in 1653. The area became noted for its large Quaker population and its schools (including Rowland Hill (postal reformer)'s at Bruce Castle.) Tottenham remained a semi-rural and upper middle class area until the 1870s.

Modern era
In late 1870, the Great Eastern Railway introduced special workman's trains and fares on its newly opened Stoke Newington & Edmonton Railway and Walthamstow branch lines. Tottenham's low-lying fields and market gardens were then rapidly transformed into cheap housing for the lower middle and working classes, who were able to commute cheaply to inner London. The workman's fare policy stimulated the relatively early development of the area into a London suburb.

An incident occurred on 23 January 1909, which was at the time known as the Tottenham Outrage.[http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/summerhillroad2002/tottenham_outrage1909.htm&date=2009-10-25+22:28:22 The Tottenham Outrage]. Retrieved 2 February 2008. Two armed robbers of Russians held up the wages clerk of a rubber works in Chesnut Road. They made their getaway via Tottenham Marshes and fled across the Lea. On the opposite bank of the river they hijacked a Walthamstow Urban District Council Light Railways, hotly pursued by the police on another tram. The hijacked tram was stopped but the robbers continued their flight on foot. After firing their weapons and killing two people, Ralph Joscelyne, aged 10, and PC William Tyler, they were eventually cornered by the police and shot themselves rather than be captured. Fourteen other people were wounded during the chase. The incident later became the subject of a silent film.[http://www.citwf.com/film422293.htm Tottenham outrage- silent film]. Retrieved 10 November 2008.

During the Second World War Tottenham also became a target of the The Blitz against Britain. Bombs fell within the borough (Elmar Road) during the first strategic bombing on London on 24 August 1940. The borough also received V-1 flying bomb (four incidents) and V-2 hits, the last of which occurred on 15 March 1945. Wartime shortages led to the creation of Tottenham Pudding, a mixture of household waste food which was converted into feeding stuffs for pigs and poultry. The "pudding" was named by Mary of Teck on a visit to Tottenham Refuse Works. Production continued into the post-war period, its demise coinciding with the merging of the borough into the new London Borough of Haringey.

, the scene of Broadwater Farm riot in 1985]]

In 1985, the Broadwater Farm housing estate in Tottenham was the scene of rioting between the police and local youths following the death of Cynthia Jarrett, a resident of Tottenham but who lived about a mile from the estate who died of heart failure after four policemen burst into her home. The response of the members of the black community in Tottenham and surrounding areas culminated in a riot beginning on Tottenham High Road and ending in the local Broadwater Farm Estate. One police officer, Keith Blakelock, was killed; 58 policemen and 24 other people were injured in the fighting. Two of the policemen were injured by gunshots during the riot, the first time that firearms had been used in that type of confrontation.

The Mecca Dance Hall Tottenham was demolished in 2004 to make way for local housing.

The 2011 England riots were precipitated by Death of Mark Duggan of a 29-year-old man in Tottenham, Mark Duggan, by officers of the Metropolitan Police Service on 4 August 2011.{{cite web
|url = http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2023556/Mark-Duggan-Violence-drugs-fatal-stabbing-unlikely-martyr.html
|title = Violence, drugs, a fatal stabbing and a most unlikely martyr
|first = Paul
|last = Bracchi
|date = 8 August 2011
|work=Daily Mail
|publisher = Associated Newspapers
|location = London
|language = British English
|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/60nX2Ag60
|archivedate = 8 August 2011
|accessdate = 2011-08-08
}}

The railways
(November 2005)]]
*Northern and Eastern Railway – Running from Stratford, London to Broxbourne was opened 15 September 1840 with two stations in the district - Tottenham Hale station and Northumberland Park railway station.
*Tottenham & Hampstead Junction Railway – Opened 21 July 1868. South Tottenham railway station was opened in 1871, two other stations on this line within Tottenham were opened later. Harringay Park (Green Lanes) opened in 1880 and St Ann's Road railway station opened in 1882 closing after service on 8 August 1942.
*Stoke Newington & Edmonton Railway – The section between Stoke Newington and Lower Edmonton opened 22 July 1872 with stations at Stamford Hill (half of the station lies in the borough), Seven Sisters station, Bruce Grove railway station and White Hart Lane railway station in Tottenham.
*Palace Gates Line – Opened within Tottenham on 1 January 1878 with stations at Seven Sisters station and West Green railway station. Passenger services ceased in 1963 with the line finally closing on 7 February 1965.
*Tottenham & Forest Gate Railway – Opened 9 July 1894.

*London Underground Piccadilly Line – Piccadilly Line Cockfosters extension through Tottenham opened on 19 September 1932.
*London Underground Victoria Line – The first section of this line opened on 1 September 1968. |population_ref = (Tottenham Regeneration Partnership area,http://www.haringey.gov.uk/summary_of_tottenham_profiles.pdf Census) |area_total_sq_mi =

Governance

Parliament
Tottenham is covered by the parliamentary constituency of Tottenham (UK Parliament constituency). The constituency was created in 1885 when the first MP was Joseph Howard (MP) of the Conservative Party (UK), but was replaced by two constituencies: Tottenham North and Tottenham South (UK Parliament constituency) in 1918. Since being reinstated in 1950 it has been predominantly represented by Labour Party (UK) candidates, with the exception of Alan Grahame Brown who defected to the Conservatives. The current MP is David Lammy who won a by-election in 2000 following the death of Bernie Grant.

Local Government
Tottenham developed from a parish in Middlesex into an Urban sanitary district in 1875, after a local board of health had been established in 1850, then divided in 1888 so that Wood Green became a separate authority. In 1894 Tottenham was reconstituted first as an Urban district (Great Britain and Ireland) then as a municipal borough in 1934, before being subsumed into the larger London Borough of Haringey under the London borough.

Today, Tottenham is represented by nine local council wards: Seven Sisters, London, Harringay, St Ann's, Tottenham Hale, Tottenham Green (ward), White Hart Lane, West Green, London, Northumberland Park, London and Bruce Grove. Councillors in 8 of these wards represent the Labour Party, the ninth (Harringay) being represented by the Liberal Democrats. |population_ref = (Tottenham Regeneration Partnership area,http://www.haringey.gov.uk/summary_of_tottenham_profiles.pdf Census) |area_total_sq_mi =

Geography

Districts

Tottenham is a large area incorporating the N15 and N17 N postcode area.

=North Tottenham=
This area stretches along Tottenham High Road from the Edmonton, London border in the north to Lordship Lane, Haringey in the south: districts include Little Russia, Edmonton, London and Northumberland Park, London. Landmarks include White Hart Lane, home of Tottenham Hotspur, White Hart Lane station and Northumberland Park railway station.

=Central Tottenham=
Continuing along the high road, Central Tottenham includes Bruce Grove, Tottenham Green and Tottenham Hale wards, as well as Tottenham Hale station and retail park, Tottenham Marshes (part of the Lee Valley Park) and Bruce Castle.

=South Tottenham=
Further along the A10 road (England) from until St Ann's Road, this area includes South Tottenham, St Ann's neighbourhood, West Green, London and Seven Sisters, London. Transport links include Seven Sisters station and South Tottenham station. Landmarks include the Markfield Beam Engine and Downhills Park.

=West Tottenham=
To the west of the area are the Broadwater Farm, Tower Gardens Estate and Lordship Recreation Ground.

Neighbouring areas

=North=
The northern limit of Tottenham is north of Brantwood Road where Upper Edmonton begins. This is also the border between the London Borough of Haringey and the London Borough of Enfield. To the northwest is Palmers Green.

=East=
The eastern limit of Tottenham is the River Lea, and across the river the neighbouring district is Walthamstow in the London Borough of Waltham Forest

=South=
The southern limit of Tottenham is the junction of St. Ann's Road with Tottenham High Road, which after becomes Stamford Hill. The district of Stamford Hill borders Tottenham, marking also the border of the London Borough of Hackney. To the southwest, Tottenham borders Manor House, London and Harringay, briefly meeting the London Borough of Islington.

=West=
Although the N15 postcode area extends to Green Lanes, the western border of Tottenham is better defined as Black Boy Lane, West Green Road and Downhills Way. The neighbouring districts are Harringay, Hornsey, Wood Green and Noel Park. |population_ref = (Tottenham Regeneration Partnership area,http://www.haringey.gov.uk/summary_of_tottenham_profiles.pdf Census) |area_total_sq_mi =

Demography and crime

Ethnic composition
Tottenham has a multicultural population, with many ethnic groups inhabiting the area. It contains one of the largest and most significant populations of British African-Caribbean community people. These were among the earliest immigrant groups to settle in the area, starting the UK's Empire Windrush era. Soon afterwards West African communities – notably the many Ghanaians – began to migrate into the area. Between 1980 and the present day there has been a slow immigration of Colombians, Republic of the Congolese, Albanians, Kurdish people, Cyprus, Turks in the United Kingdom, Somalis in the United Kingdom, Irish, Portuguese people, and Zimbabweans populations. South Tottenham is reported to be the most ethnically-diverse area in Europe, with up to 300 languages being spoken by its residents.{{Cite news|author=JUMANA FAROUKY |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1590193,00.html?iid=chix-sphere |title=Unity Begins at Home – TIME |publisher=TIME

According to David Lammy MP, Tottenham has the highest unemployment rate in London and the 8th highest in the United Kingdom, and it has some of the highest poverty rates within the country. There have also been major tensions between the British African-Caribbean community community and the police since (and before) the 1985 Broadwater Farm riot.

Organised crime
Tottenham has been one of the main hotspots for Gangs in the United Kingdom and gun crime in the United Kingdom during the past three decades. This followed the rise of gangs and drug wars throughout the area, notably those involving the Tottenham Mandem gang and various gangs from London Borough of Hackney and all of the areas surrounding Tottenham, and the emergence of an organised crime ring known as the Turkish mafia was said to have controlled more than 90% of the UK's Heroin.

Riots
*The Broadwater Farm riot occurred around the Broadwater Farm area on 6 October 1985 following the death of Cynthia Jarrett in a police search of her home. The tension between local black youth and the largely white Metropolitan Police had been high due to a combination of local issues and the aftermath of Brixton riot (1985) which had occurred in the previous week. The riots resulted in the death of a police officer.Kenneth Newman [http://www.police-foundation.org.uk/files/POLICE0001/speeches/1986%20Sir%20Kenneth%20Newman.pdf ''Police-Public Relations: The Pace of Change: Police Foundation Lecture 1986'', The Police Foundation, 1986

]]

*The 2011 Tottenham riots were a series of riots carried out by protesters in Tottenham, London. Attacks were carried out on two police cars, a bus, a Post Office and several local shops from 8:00 pm onwards on 6 August 2011. Riot police vans attended the scene of disturbances on Tottenham High Road. Later in the evening the riot spread, with an Aldi supermarket and a branch of Allied Carpets also destroyed by fire, and widespread looting in nearby Wood Green shopping centre and the retail park at Tottenham Hale. Several flats above shops on Tottenham High Road collapsed due to the fires. 26 shared ownership flats in the Union Point development above the Carpetright store – built in the landmark Cooperative department store building – were also completely destroyed by fire. The triggering event was when a group of over one hundred local Tottenham residents set out to undertake a protest march against the Death of Mark Duggan, who was shot by police officers assigned to Operation Trident (Metropolitan Police) earlier in the week. The circumstances surrounding Duggan's death were not entirely clear at the time of the riot. On 17 August 2011 the Charles, Prince of Wales and his wife Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall visited an emergency centre to meet victims of the riots.[http://www.enfieldindependent.co.uk/news/localnews/9200794.Royal_couple_visit_Tottenham_riot_relief_centre/ News report] Retrieved 22 August 2011 |population_ref = (Tottenham Regeneration Partnership area,http://www.haringey.gov.uk/summary_of_tottenham_profiles.pdf Census) |area_total_sq_mi =

Landmarks

*All Hallows, Tottenham – This is the oldest surviving building in the borough and dates back to Normans. For more than 700 years it was the original parish church for Tottenham. Presented in 1802 with a bell from the Quebec Garrison, which was captured from the French in the Battle of Quebec (1759), Canada. Adjacent to the church is
*Tottenham Cemetery – A large cemetery, which makes up part of an open access area of land and habitat, along with Bruce Castle Park and All Hallows Churchyard.[http://www.london.gov.uk/wildweb/PublicSiteView.do?siteid=6626 ]
*Broadwater Farm – Housing estate built in 1967; it was the site of the Broadwater Farm riot in 1985.
*Brook Street Chapel – Non-denominational Christian chapel, established in 1839, and one of the earliest Plymouth Brethren /Open Brethren assemblies in London that still exists. The church was associated with local notable Christians such as Hudson Taylor, Dr Barnardo, John Eliot Howard, Luke Howard and Philip Gosse.
*Bruce Castle, Lordship Lane, Haringey – Grade 1 listed, it was Tottenham's manor house and dates from the sixteenth century, with alterations by subsequent occupants. It was given the name 'Bruce Castle' during the seventeenth century by the 2nd Lord Coleraine, who was Lord of the Manor at the time. He named it after 'Robert the Bruce', whose family had been Lord of the Manor during the medieval period. The building was purchased by the Hill family, who turned it into a progressive school. Rowland Hill (postal reformer) was its first headmaster, and he was living there in 1840 when he, as United Kingdom Postmaster General, introduced the Uniform Penny Post. Now a local history museum, Bruce Castle holds the archives of the London Borough of Haringey.
* 7 Bruce Grove – The building features an English Heritage blue plaque commemorating Luke Howard (1772–1864), the 'Father of Meteorology', who named the clouds in 1802.
* Northumberland Row – Erected circa 1740 on the site of the former Smithson seat, previously that of the Hynningham family. The gate piers are possibly from Bruce Castle. The wrought iron gate bears the monogram ''HS'' for one of the two Hugh Smithsons, both Tottenham landowners and sometime MPs for Middlesex.
* Clyde Circus conservation area
* Edmanson’s Close – Previously known as the ''Almshouses of the Drapers' Company'', they were built in 1870 and were established through the generosity of three seventeenth-century benefactor (law)s, Sir John Jolles, John Pemel and John Edmanson.
dominate the western part of Tottenham]]
*Tottenham High Cross – Erected sometime between 1600 and 1609 on the site of an earlier Christian cross, although there is some speculation that the first structure on the site was a Ancient Rome beacon or marker, situated on a low summit on Ermine Street. Tottenham High Cross is often mistakenly thought to be an Eleanor cross.
* Markfield Beam Engine
*St Ann's Church Tottenham – Consecrated in 1861, St Ann's Church houses the organ that was originally in Crosby Hall, Bishopsgate, on which Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, who composed the famous Wedding March from A Midsummer Night's Dream, regularly gave recitals.
*St Ignatius' Church and St Ignatius' College – Built between 1894 and 1902, with two towers in the style of a 12th-century German cathedral, this Catholic church is situated at the foot of Stamford Hill and dominates the area.
*Tower Gardens Estate – Previously known as the ''LCC White Hart Lane Estate'', this County of London LCC cottage housing estate was constructed beginning in 1904. The architectural style is said to be inspired by houses in Ghent, Belgium. The estate was the home of Harry Champion, a well-known music hall star and performer of the song "I'm Henery the Eighth, I Am". |population_ref = (Tottenham Regeneration Partnership area,http://www.haringey.gov.uk/summary_of_tottenham_profiles.pdf Census) |area_total_sq_mi =

Transport

Two London Underground Lines serve the Tottenham area. The Piccadilly Line, which opened in 1932 has one station Turnpike Lane tube station which was the first Underground station within the then Tottenham Borough boundaries. The Victoria Line which opened in 1968 has its operating depot in Tottenham at Northumberland Park Depot and has two stations, Seven Sisters station and Tottenham Hale station, situated in the area. National Rail stations Seven Sisters, Tottenham Hale, Bruce Grove railway station, White Hart Lane railway station and Northumberland Park railway station serve the area. The train services are provided by Greater Anglia and London Overground services at South Tottenham station. |population_ref = (Tottenham Regeneration Partnership area,http://www.haringey.gov.uk/summary_of_tottenham_profiles.pdf Census) |area_total_sq_mi =

Sport

[[File:White Hart Lane Aerial.jpg|thumb|White Hart Lane]]
Tottenham is the home of Premier League association football club Tottenham Hotspur F.C.. Tottenham have won the Football League twice, the FA Cup eight times, the UEFA Cup twice, the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup once and the Football League Cup, four times. In 2010, they qualified for the UEFA Champions League, Europe's elite competition for the first time. The club's home ground is White Hart Lane, located on Park Lane, rather than the road of the same name. The ground is named after the White Hart Inn that it was built behind, and the nearest White Hart Lane railway station to the ground.

Tottenham also has two Non-League football club Haringey Borough F.C. and Haringey & Waltham Development F.C., who both play at Coles Park. |population_ref = (Tottenham Regeneration Partnership area,http://www.haringey.gov.uk/summary_of_tottenham_profiles.pdf Census) |area_total_sq_mi =

Notable people

Adele (b. May 1988, Adele Laurie Blue Adkins), an internationally renowned singer-songwriter and musician, was born in Tottenham.

David Triesman, former chairman of the Football Association and Labour peer in the House of Lords is from Tottenham. |population_ref = (Tottenham Regeneration Partnership area,http://www.haringey.gov.uk/summary_of_tottenham_profiles.pdf Census) |area_total_sq_mi =

See also

*List of people from Haringey
*List of schools in Haringey |population_ref = (Tottenham Regeneration Partnership area,http://www.haringey.gov.uk/summary_of_tottenham_profiles.pdf Census) |area_total_sq_mi =

References

|population_ref = (Tottenham Regeneration Partnership area,http://www.haringey.gov.uk/summary_of_tottenham_profiles.pdf Census) |area_total_sq_mi =

External links

*[http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=26985 Tottenham: Growth before 1850]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/49/a6095649.shtml World War Two memories (V2 rocket attack on Tottenham Grammar School)]
* [http://www.met.police.uk/history/tottenham_outrage.htm 1909 Tottenham Outrage]






Category:Districts of Haringey
Category:Areas of London
Category:History of Haringey
Category:Districts of London listed in the Domesday Book