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Uxbridge is a large town in west London, England, and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles (24.1 km) west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, and was a significant local commercial centre from an early time. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, Municipal Borough of Uxbridge in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University and the Uxbridge campus of Buckinghamshire New University. The town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne, Hertfordshire. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, including attempted negotiations between King Charles I of England and the Roundhead during the English Civil War. The public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge also houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was later used during the D-Day landings. The List of electoral wards in Greater London are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council and for statistical purposes. The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South.

History

Toponymy
The name of the town is derived from "Wixan's Bridge", which was sited near the bottom of Oxford Road where a modern road bridge now stands, beside the Swan and Bottle public house.Pearce 2011, p. 7 The Wixan were a 7th-century Saxon people tribe from Lincolnshire who also began to settle in what became Middlesex.Cotton 1994, p. 8 Anglo-Saxons began to settle and farm in the area of Uxbridge in the 5th century, clearing the dense woodland and remaining there for around 500 years. Two other places in Middlesex bore the name of the Wixan: ''Uxenden Hall'' ("Wixan's Hill"), a name now preserved only in the street names of Uxendon Hill and Crescent in Harrow, and ''Waxlow'' ("Wixan's Wood") near Southall.

Archaeologists found Bronze Age remains (before 700 BC) and medieval remains during the construction of ''The Chimes'' shopping centre; two miles (3.2 km) away at Denham, Buckinghamshire, Upper Paleolithic remains have been found. Uxbridge is not mentioned in the ''Domesday Book'' of the 11th century, but a hundred years later the existing church, [http://www.uxbridgeparish.org/stmargarets St Margaret's], was built. The town appears in records from 1107 as "Woxbrigge", and became part of the Elthorne (hundred) with other settlements in the area.Sherwood 2007, p. 5

Early developments

The Parliamentary Army garrisoned the town upon the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642 and established their headquarters there in June 1647 on a line from Staines-upon-Thames to Watford,Cotton 1994, p. 23 although the king passed through Uxbridge in April 1646, resting at the Red Lion public house for several hours.Cotton 1994, p. 25 Charles I met with representatives of Parliament at the Crown Inn in Uxbridge in 1645, but negotiations for the end of hostilities were unsuccessful due in part to the king's stubborn attitude. The town had been chosen as it was located between the Royal headquarters at Oxford and the Parliamentary stronghold of London.Cotton 1994, p. 22

The covered market was built in 1788, replacing a building constructed in 1561.Sherwood 2007, p. 53 In the early 19th century, Uxbridge had an unsavoury reputation; the jurist William Arabin said of its residents "They will steal the very teeth out of your mouth as you walk through the streets. I know it from experience." For about 200 years most of London's flour was produced in the Uxbridge area.Cotton 1994, p. 32

The Grand Junction Canal opened in 1794, linking Uxbridge with Birmingham. By 1800 Uxbridge had become one of the most important market towns in Middlesex, helped by its status as the first stopping point for stagecoaches travelling from London to Oxford. The development of Uxbridge declined after the opening of the Great Western Railway in 1838, which passed through West Drayton. A branch line to Uxbridge was not built until 1904.Sherwood 2007, p. 6

Harman's Brewery was established in Uxbridge by George Harman in 1763, and moved into its new headquarters in Uxbridge High Street in 1875. The eventual owners of the brewery, Courage Brewery, closed the headquarters in 1964. It was demolished and replaced by a Budgen's supermarket, which in turn was demolished with the construction of The Chimes shopping centre. The brewery building in George Street remained in place until it was demolished in 1967.Sherwood 2007, p. 43 The office building Harman House was built on the site in 1985, named after the brewery.Sherwood 2007, p. 44

Urban development

The Inclosure of Hillingdon Parish in 1819 saw the reduction in size of Uxbridge Common, which at its largest had been in circumference. The common originally covered both sides of Park Road to the north of the town centre but now covers .Sherwood 2007, p. 71

In 1871 the town's first purpose-built police station was built in Windsor Street. The building included three cells and stables. The Metropolitan Police Service continued to use the building until 1988, when operations moved to a new site in Harefield Road. The building subsequently became the Old Bill public house in 1996, renamed the Fig Tree in 2006.Pearce 2011, p. 54

In the early 1900s the Uxbridge and District Electricity Supply Company had been established in Waterloo Road, and much of the town was connected by 1902, although some houses still had gas lighting in 1912. A water tower on Uxbridge Common was built in 1906, resembling a church tower, to improve the supply to the town.Cotton 1994, p. 105

Wood panelling from a room in the Crown & Treaty public house was sold in 1924 to an American businessman, who installed it in his office in the Empire State Building in New York. It was returned in 1953 as a gift to the newly crowned Queen Elizabeth II and returned to the house, although the monarch retained ownership.Cotton 1994, p. 24

On 31 August 1935 Uxbridge Lido, an outdoor swimming pool built in the "Moderne" or Art Deco style, was officially opened. Before the opening, many residents swam in a section of the Frays River near Harefield Road,Skinner 2008, p. 30 and the River Colne, Hertfordshire.Cotton 1994, p. 121 The pool, pavilion building, entrance building and both fountains were designated Listed building listed buildings in 1998. Despite the listing and the pool becoming closed to the public, the buildings were subjected to heavy vandalism.Sherwood 2007, p. 72 Uxbridge open air pool was fully refurbished during 2009 and re-opened in May 2010, added to the site, now named 'Hillingdon sports & Leisure complex is a 50m indoor competition pool, leisure pool, 100 station gym, wide range of exercise classes, athletics stadium and track, 3G floodlit pitches, sports hall. cafe, creche. The Grade II listed buildings are still fully standing.

During the Second World War Uxbridge adopted the Royal Navy destroyer ''HMS Intrepid (D10)'' in 1942, to help towards the ship's costs; ''Intrepid'' was lost to enemy action the following year.Cotton 1994, p. 129 The town and surrounding areas suffered bombing by the Luftwaffe. V-1 (flying bomb) fell on the town between June 1944 and March 1945. The first recorded bombing using a V1 was on 22 June 1944 at 07:00, when the bomb passed over the top of a bus and hit four houses nearby. Seven people were killed and 25 injured, leaving 46 houses in the area uninhabitable.Skinner 2008, p. 107


In 1958 the Lowe & Shawyer plant nursery to the west of RAF Uxbridge entered voluntary liquidation. The nursery had stood in Kingston Lane since 1868, and was the largest producer of cut flowers in the country.Sherwood 2007, p. 39 Demolition work began in 1962, and the construction of Brunel University commenced.Pearce 2009, p. 95 Chrysanthemums are included the coat of arms of the Borough of Uxbridge in memory of the nursery.Cotton 1994, p. 113 The Uxbridge (Vine Street) Branch Line, which partially ran alongside the site, was closed in 1964 and in 1966 the university opened, purchasing the land where the railway had run from the local council for £65,000.

Uxbridge Cricket Club moved from Cricketfield Road in 1971 to make way for the new Civic Centre.Cotton 1994, p. 64 The club had been at Cricketfield Road since 1858, but moved to a new site on part of Uxbridge Common on Park Road.Skinner 2008, p. 27 The Market Square shopping precinct in the town centre was built in the late 1970s, but its lack of shelter made it unpopular and it did not attract the levels of custom hoped for. Many buildings along the High Street and Windsor Street had been demolished to make way for the new precinctSherwood 2007, p. 47 which was eventually sold to the Prudential Assurance Company and redeveloped with a roof in the early 1980s to become the The Mall Pavilions.Cotton 1994, p. 138 The Peacock public house in one of the two main squares was demolished and replaced with a cafe named The Chequers, which remains.Sherwood 2007, p. 50 The Rayner's pharmacy shop was also demolished during the Market Square development, although the shopfront was saved by the Museum of London and is held in storage.Sherwood 2007, p. 46


The Chimes, Uxbridge shopping centre was built beside Uxbridge station in 2001, incorporating many of the existing buildings into the new structure. The centre was originally to be named the St. George's Centre in plans dating back to the early 1990s, though this name was eventually taken by another shopping centre in Harrow on the Hill. Instead, The Chimes was said to refer to the sound of the bells from the nearby market house on the High Street.Sherwood 2007, p. 58 An Odeon Cinemas cinema opened as a major part of the centre, with the smaller cinema at the opposite end of the High Street closing.Sherwood 2007, p. 59 Some houses on Chippendale Way and the St George's car park were demolished to allow for the construction of the new shopping centre car park.Sherwood 2007, p. 64 The offices of the local building company Fassnidge were also included in the new development; built in the 19th century, they now house a Pizza Express restaurant. Preserved timber from earlier demolished buildings in Uxbridge was used in the construction of a new building beside the former offices of Fassnidge, designed to resemble a much older structure.Sherwood 2007, pp. 62–63

In 2002 the dry ski slope near Park Road and the Uxbridge Lido was closed, and the remaining buildings and structures removed. The Hillingdon Ski Centre had been subject to several arson attacks during 2001 and the company operating it became bankrupt. The slope, which had been built in 1977, was left to return to nature.

Work began in 2008 to extensively refurbish and extend Uxbridge Lido, and it reopened to the public in February 2010 as the Hillingdon Sports and Leisure Complex. On 8 September 2010 the 75th anniversary of the first opening of the Lido was celebrated at the pool. Uxbridge is a large town in west London, England, and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles (24.1 km) west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, and was a significant local commercial centre from an early time. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, Municipal Borough of Uxbridge in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University and the Uxbridge campus of Buckinghamshire New University. The town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne, Hertfordshire. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, including attempted negotiations between King Charles I of England and the Roundhead during the English Civil War. The public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge also houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was later used during the D-Day landings. The List of electoral wards in Greater London are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council and for statistical purposes. The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South.

Local government

Uxbridge originally formed a chapelry within the parish of Hillingdon. It was split out as a separate civil parishes in England in 1866,Cotton 1994, p. 44 and became part of the Municipal Borough of Uxbridge in 1894 under the Local Government Act 1894. In 1955 the urban district council successfully petitioned for a charter of incorporation and became a municipal borough. This remained until 1965, when the borough was incorporated into the new London Borough of Hillingdon.Cotton 1994, p. 131 Within the borough, Uxbridge is split into two wards: Uxbridge North and Uxbridge South. Both are served by three Conservative Party councillors each.

Uxbridge had its own Uxbridge (UK Parliament constituency) until boundary changes at the United Kingdom general election, 2010 meant it became part of the Uxbridge and South Ruislip (UK Parliament constituency). Uxbridge and South Ruislip is represented by John Randall (UK politician) Member of Parliament, of the Conservative Party (UK). John Randall was first elected to represent Uxbridge in a 1997 by-election after the sitting MP, Sir Michael Shersby, died shortly after the United Kingdom general election, 1997. Uxbridge is a large town in west London, England, and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles (24.1 km) west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, and was a significant local commercial centre from an early time. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, Municipal Borough of Uxbridge in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University and the Uxbridge campus of Buckinghamshire New University. The town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne, Hertfordshire. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, including attempted negotiations between King Charles I of England and the Roundhead during the English Civil War. The public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge also houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was later used during the D-Day landings. The List of electoral wards in Greater London are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council and for statistical purposes. The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South.

Geography

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Uxbridge lies at a mean elevation of above mean sea level. Like much of the rest of the UK its climate is generally temperate, with few extremes of temperature or weather.

The landscape upon which the settlement of Uxbridge was established is largely unchanged from the Mesolithic era. Much of it was covered by oak and elm trees, which were gradually cleared by early settlers. An archaeological excavation by the Museum of London in the 1990s found evidence of flint items shaped by Mesolithic hunters, as well as various animal bones and traces of charcoal from the remains of campfires.

The River Pinn runs through Uxbridge, passing through the former site of RAF Uxbridge and the grounds of Brunel University. It joins the Frays River, which branches off from the River Colne, Hertfordshire and acts as the boundary between Uxbridge and the neighbouring county of Buckinghamshire. Uxbridge is a large town in west London, England, and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles (24.1 km) west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, and was a significant local commercial centre from an early time. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, Municipal Borough of Uxbridge in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University and the Uxbridge campus of Buckinghamshire New University. The town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne, Hertfordshire. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, including attempted negotiations between King Charles I of England and the Roundhead during the English Civil War. The public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge also houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was later used during the D-Day landings. The List of electoral wards in Greater London are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council and for statistical purposes. The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South.

Demography

The approximate population figure for Uxbridge North was recorded in 2009 by the Office for National Statistics as 11,812, and 11,887 in Uxbridge South. The majority of residents in Uxbridge North were white, with 85% categorised, against 79% for the entire borough of Hillingdon. Uxbridge South also had a majority of white residents, matching the borough figure. In both wards, the remaining percentage was made up of mixed-race, Asian or Asian British, Black or Black British, and Chinese or other ethnic group. Of the two wards, Uxbridge South had a higher percentage of black and Chinese residents, when compared with the borough.

By the 2011 Census, the population of Uxbridge North had reached 12,048 in Uxbridge North and 13,979 in Uxbridge South. The most common ethnic group remained white in Uxbridge North, measured as 69.8%, followed by Asian or Asian British (19.5%) and Black or Black British (4.1%). The remaining percentage was made up of mixed-race and other unspecified ethnic groups. White was also the most common ethnic group in Uxbridge South, measured as 62.1%, followed by Asian or Asian British (22.6%), Black or Black British (7.3%) and mixed-race (4.3%). The remaining percentage was made up of other unspecified ethnic groups.

In terms of employment, Uxbridge North had a larger number of residents employed in managerial roles, when measured during the 2001 census. The majority of residents in Uxbridge South were categorised as "not classifieds".

The life expectancy for men is 77 in Uxbridge North, compared with 74 in Uxbridge South. The figures for women are 83 in Uxbridge North and 81 in Uxbridge South. Uxbridge is a large town in west London, England, and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles (24.1 km) west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, and was a significant local commercial centre from an early time. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, Municipal Borough of Uxbridge in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University and the Uxbridge campus of Buckinghamshire New University. The town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne, Hertfordshire. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, including attempted negotiations between King Charles I of England and the Roundhead during the English Civil War. The public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge also houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was later used during the D-Day landings. The List of electoral wards in Greater London are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council and for statistical purposes. The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South.

Religion

In the 2011 census, 72.8% of residents in the Uxbridge North ward answered that they had a religion, compared with 19.3% who did not and 7.9% who did not answer. Of those who did answer, 53% who identified as Christian, followed by 6.7% who identified as Muslim and 6.2% as Sikh. The percentage identifying as Hindu was 5.4%. Figures for residents identifying as either Jewish, Buddhist or other unspecified religions were each below 1%.

Within the Uxbridge South ward, 69.2% of residents answered that they had a religion, compared with 23.8% who did not and 7% who did not answer. As with Uxbridge North, the majority (46.4%) identified as Christian, followed by 13.4% who identified as Muslim and 5% as Hindu. The percentage identifying as Sikh was 2.3% and those identifying as Buddhist were 1.2%. Figures for residents identifying as either Jewish or other unspecified religions were each below 1%. Uxbridge is a large town in west London, England, and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles (24.1 km) west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, and was a significant local commercial centre from an early time. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, Municipal Borough of Uxbridge in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University and the Uxbridge campus of Buckinghamshire New University. The town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne, Hertfordshire. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, including attempted negotiations between King Charles I of England and the Roundhead during the English Civil War. The public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge also houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was later used during the D-Day landings. The List of electoral wards in Greater London are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council and for statistical purposes. The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South.

Economy

Uxbridge has two shopping centres, The Pavilions and Intu Uxbridge (formerly The Chimes). Much of the town centre is pedestrianised. In addition, just off the High Street is Windsor Street, a short road populated by older shops. Randall's, the Art Deco style department store is owned by the family of the MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip, John Randall (British politician). The present store was constructed in 1939 on the site of another that had been built in 1900.Pearce 2011, p. 61 It was awarded Listed building status in October 2008.

The town centre comprises retail outlets and a number of office buildings, including the main European offices of several international companies including Canon (company), PricewaterhouseCoopers, Apple Inc., WMS Gaming, Unisys, Kuehne + Nagel, PAREXEL, Xerox, Arri, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Monster Energy, American President Lines, Herbalife Europe and Anixter International. Other employers include F. Hinds, The Coca-Cola Company, Coca-Cola Enterprises, General Mills and Nexen. Cadbury plc moved its head office to Uxbridge from Mayfair in January 2008. The company announced the plan in 2007 as part of efforts to cut costs.Muspratt, Caroline. "[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/markets/2809823/Cadbury-swaps-Mayfair-for-Uxbridge.html Cadbury swaps Mayfair for Uxbridge]." ''The Daily Telegraph''. 1 June 2007. Retrieved on 27 April 2010.

Within the borough of Hillingdon, 55.1% of residents travel to the Uxbridge North and Uxbridge South wards to work, and only 8% of residents working there also live within the wards. The 2001 census measured a total of 6,007 (35.9%) of residents leaving the North ward to go to work. Uxbridge South had a figure of 5,666 (26.5%) of residents leaving the ward to work elsewhere. Uxbridge is a large town in west London, England, and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles (24.1 km) west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, and was a significant local commercial centre from an early time. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, Municipal Borough of Uxbridge in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University and the Uxbridge campus of Buckinghamshire New University. The town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne, Hertfordshire. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, including attempted negotiations between King Charles I of England and the Roundhead during the English Civil War. The public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge also houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was later used during the D-Day landings. The List of electoral wards in Greater London are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council and for statistical purposes. The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South.

Education

Primary education schools in Uxbridge include Hermitage Primary School, St Andrew's Church of England Primary School, St Mary's Catholic Primary School, Whitehall Infant School, and Whitehall Junior School. Uxbridge High School is a comprehensive school secondary school in the town.

Uxbridge is also home to Brunel University and the Buckinghamshire New University's nursing campus. The main campus of Uxbridge College is also in the town. Uxbridge is a large town in west London, England, and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles (24.1 km) west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, and was a significant local commercial centre from an early time. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, Municipal Borough of Uxbridge in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University and the Uxbridge campus of Buckinghamshire New University. The town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne, Hertfordshire. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, including attempted negotiations between King Charles I of England and the Roundhead during the English Civil War. The public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge also houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was later used during the D-Day landings. The List of electoral wards in Greater London are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council and for statistical purposes. The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South.

Transport

Uxbridge tube station is the western terminus for the Metropolitan line and Piccadilly line lines of the London Underground. The station, built in 1933, is fronted by a pedestrian high street and is connected to a bus terminus with connections to Hillingdon, Hayes, Ealing, Ruislip, and Slough.


There were once two overground railway stations: Uxbridge Vine Street railway station (originally just Uxbridge Station) and Uxbridge High Street railway station. Both were planned to be linked, hence High Street ending on a half-built bridge.Cotton 1994, p. 102 High Street closed to passengers as a war economy and never reopened. Despite having the most intensive service, the Vine Street line was one of the first Western Region urban branches to close under the Beeching axe. Uxbridge Belmont Road was the first underground station, built slightly outside the town centre to allow for a possible extension to High Wycombe. This was subsequently replaced by the current station.Pearce 2009, p. 51

The B roads in Zone 4 of the Great Britain numbering scheme road connects the centre of Uxbridge with the Swakeleys Roundabout junction of the A40 road in London. Uxbridge is also connected by major roads to Slough, Denham, Buckinghamshire, Ickenham, Cowley, Iver Heath, Hillingdon Heath and Hayes.

The Grand Union Canal, formerly the Grand Junction Canal, connects London with Birmingham and passes immediately to the west of Uxbridge, forming part of the borough boundary. The first stretch was built in the late 18th century from Brentford to Uxbridge. Further upstream is Uxbridge Lock, and nearby is a derelict flour mill formerly owned by Allied Mills. The mill was bought in the 19th century by William King, who named it "Kingsmill". Kingsmill continues to be used as a brand of bread by Associated British Foods.

London Buses routes 222, London Buses route 331, London Buses route 427, London Buses route 607, London Buses route A10, U1, U2, U3, U4, U5, U7, U9, U10 and N207 serve the area, alongside five non-Transport for London (TfL) routes: First Berkshire & The Thames Valley route 58, Green Line route 724 and Carousel Buses routes A30, A40 and 740.

The proposed West London Tram was postponed indefinitely by TfL in August 2007 after it was announced that the Crossrail project would be going ahead. TfL cited "an effective bus-based solution" as an alternative, delivered in conjunction with local councils. As of 2013 the route is served by the 427, 207, and 607 bus services. Uxbridge is a large town in west London, England, and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles (24.1 km) west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, and was a significant local commercial centre from an early time. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, Municipal Borough of Uxbridge in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University and the Uxbridge campus of Buckinghamshire New University. The town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne, Hertfordshire. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, including attempted negotiations between King Charles I of England and the Roundhead during the English Civil War. The public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge also houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was later used during the D-Day landings. The List of electoral wards in Greater London are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council and for statistical purposes. The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South.

Landmarks

Civic Centre

The London Borough of Hillingdon's Civic Centre was built in Uxbridge High Street in 1973, as part of an effort to unite the services of the council, which had formed in 1965 with the merger of the Municipal Borough of Uxbridge, Ruislip-Northwood Urban District, Hayes and Harlington Urban District and Yiewsley and West Drayton Urban District. Before the new building was completed, council services had been spread throughout Uxbridge and the rest of the borough and various buildings, as a result of the merging of the former district councils.

Part of the original Middlesex County Council office building that stood on site was incorporated into the new Civic Centre. The centre's clock tower is the only visible section from the old building. The Uxbridge Cricket Club Ground and Uxbridge fire station were relocated as part of the new development, which became controversial owing to its size and cost. Areas of the building, particularly the council chambers, continue to suffer from poor acoustics.Sherwood 2007, p. 36

Uxbridge Magistrates' Court
The original Magistrates' Court opened in 1907 in an Edwardian architecture style. A new building with little exterior styling opened nearby in the 1990s and legal proceedings were transferred.Sherwood 2007, p. 32

RAF Uxbridge, Battle of Britain Bunker and Hillingdon House


Uxbridge had a Royal Air Force station, known as RAF Uxbridge, until its closure on 31 March 2010. The station was built within the grounds of Hillingdon House, a 19th-century mansion bought by the British Government in 1915,Crozier 2007, p. 5 and became most famous for being the home of RAF Fighter Command's No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room during the Battle of Britain. Fighter squadrons at airfields in the south-east of England were directed from the station, which was visited by the Prime Minister Winston Churchill during the Battle, and other foreign leaders throughout the rest of the war.Crozier 2007, p. 29

Following the station's closure, the replica No. 33 Squadron RAF Supermarine Spitfire gate guardian was removed from the main entrance for restoration work and moved to the entrance of the Operations Room (now known as the Battle of Britain Bunker). The area around the bunker was retained as an enclave under the RAF Uxbridge name, under the care of RAF Northolt. An additional guardian, a Hawker Hurricane in the colours of No. 303 Polish Fighter Squadron, was added to the area in November 2010. Uxbridge is a large town in west London, England, and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles (24.1 km) west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, and was a significant local commercial centre from an early time. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, Municipal Borough of Uxbridge in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University and the Uxbridge campus of Buckinghamshire New University. The town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne, Hertfordshire. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, including attempted negotiations between King Charles I of England and the Roundhead during the English Civil War. The public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge also houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was later used during the D-Day landings. The List of electoral wards in Greater London are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council and for statistical purposes. The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South.

Sport and leisure

Uxbridge has a Non-League football team, Uxbridge F.C., which plays at Honeycroft, West Drayton.
Uxbridge Cricket Club is also based in Uxbridge and is a member of the Middlesex County Cricket League, a designated ECB Premier League.
Hillingdon Sports and Leisure Complex has recently been refurblished and contains an indoor and outdoor swimming pool, an athletic track and large sports complex. The South Korean Olympic Team used the centre for training during the 2012 Olympic Games. Uxbridge is a large town in west London, England, and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles (24.1 km) west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, and was a significant local commercial centre from an early time. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, Municipal Borough of Uxbridge in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University and the Uxbridge campus of Buckinghamshire New University. The town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne, Hertfordshire. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, including attempted negotiations between King Charles I of England and the Roundhead during the English Civil War. The public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge also houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was later used during the D-Day landings. The List of electoral wards in Greater London are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council and for statistical purposes. The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South.

Notable people

A number of notable people have lived in Uxbridge. Christine Keeler, the 1960s model who became involved in the 1963 Profumo Affair, was born in Uxbridge. The actor, writer and director, Bernard Miles (1907–1991), was born in the town, and attended Bishopshalt School.

John Stears (1934–1999), the Academy Award-winning creator of James Bond's Aston Martin DB5, the ''Star Wars'' robots R2-D2 and C-3PO, and the Jedi Knights' lightsabers, among other special effects, was also born in Uxbridge. Uxbridge is a large town in west London, England, and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles (24.1 km) west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, and was a significant local commercial centre from an early time. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, Municipal Borough of Uxbridge in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University and the Uxbridge campus of Buckinghamshire New University. The town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne, Hertfordshire. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, including attempted negotiations between King Charles I of England and the Roundhead during the English Civil War. The public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge also houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was later used during the D-Day landings. The List of electoral wards in Greater London are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council and for statistical purposes. The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South.

References

'''Citations'''



'''Bibliography'''
* Bainbridge, John. (2001) ''Middlesex Photographic Memories''. Salisbury: Frith Book Company ISBN 1-85937-158-2
* Cotton, Carolynne. (1994) ''Uxbridge Past''. London: Historical Publications ISBN 0-948667-30-3
* Crozier, Hazel. (2007) ''RAF Uxbridge 90th Anniversary 1917–2007''. RAF High Wycombe: Air Command Media Services
* Hearmon, Carolynne. (1982) ''Uxbridge. A Concise History''. Uxbridge: Hillingdon Borough Libraries ISBN 0-907869-06-8
* Pearce, K. R. (2009) ''Uxbridge From Old Photographs''. Stroud: Amberley Publishing ISBN 978-1-84868-390-7
* Pearce, K. (2011) ''Uxbridge Through Time''. Stroud: Amberley Publishing ISBN 978-1-4456-0522-7
* Sherwood, Philip. (2007) ''Around Uxbridge Past & Present''. Stroud: Sutton Publishing ISBN 978-0-7509-4794-7
* Skinner, James. (2008) ''Growing Up In Wartime Uxbridge''. Stroud: Tempus Publishing ISBN 978-0-7524-4543-4 Uxbridge is a large town in west London, England, and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles (24.1 km) west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, and was a significant local commercial centre from an early time. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, Municipal Borough of Uxbridge in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University and the Uxbridge campus of Buckinghamshire New University. The town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne, Hertfordshire. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, including attempted negotiations between King Charles I of England and the Roundhead during the English Civil War. The public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge also houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No. 11 Group RAF Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was later used during the D-Day landings. The List of electoral wards in Greater London are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council and for statistical purposes. The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South.

External links

*[http://www.hillingdon.gov.uk/ London Borough of Hillingdon]









Category:Areas of London
Category:Districts of Hillingdon
Category:Metropolitan centres of London
Category:Market towns in London
Category:Post towns in the UB postcode area